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Bio: Pharmaceutical intermediates are chemical compounds widely used in manufacturing various types of drugs in bulk quantity and also used for research and development by Pharmaceutical and biopharma companies.
Pharmaceutical Intermediates Market - About the Report

Pharmaceutical intermediates are used as raw materials during the manufacture of bulk drugs. Leading biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical manufacturing companies are focusing on improving their product footprint globally. These companies are focusing on strengthening their product reach in different countries across the world through various distribution channels. Growth outlook therefore remains positive for pharmaceutical intermediates market as companies continue focusing on enhancing the capacities of their manufacturing plants in various countries of the world.

In its new study, ESOMAR-certified market research and consulting firm Future Market Insights (FMI) offers insights about key factors fuelling demand for pharmaceutical intermediates. The report tracks the global sales of pharmaceutical intermediates in 20+ high-growth markets, along with analyzing the impact COVID-19 has on the pharmaceutical industry in general and the market in particular.

D-Cycloserine Intermediates
Human brain imaging studies indicate that the medial prefrontal cortex activity can predict more than 80% of the variance of chronic back pain intensity. Therefore, the investigators have hypothesized that modulation of brain activity at this site should result in analgesia. D-cycloserine Intermediates have been shown to potentiate conditioned fear extinction. Based on this the investigators hypothesize that chronic neuropathic pain (back pain with radiculopathy) is partially mediated or potentiated by decreased ability to extinguish the pain memory, which the investigators hypothesize to be mediated through reward/aversion brain circuitry, and specifically through the medial prefrontal cortex. They have tested this idea in pre-clinical studies and demonstrated that rats with neuropathic pain show analgesia over the long term when treated with D-cycloserine. In humans with chronic back pain, the investigators hypothesize that D-cycloserine will enhance the extinction of back pain which in turn should result in reduced emotional relevance of the pain, that is reduced suffering. It is quite possible that the overall intensity of the back pain will be unaffected, however, the associated suffering will be significantly attenuated.

Atazanavir Intermediates are used along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults and children who are at least 3 months of age and weigh at least 22 lb (10 kg). Atazanavir is in a class of medications called protease inhibitors. It works by decreasing the amount of HIV in the blood. Although atazanavir does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-related illnesses such as serious infections or cancer. Atazanavir must be given with other medications that treat HIV infection to completely treat the infection. Taking these medications along with practicing safer sex and making other lifestyle changes may decrease the risk of transmitting the HIV virus to other people.

How should this medicine be used?

Atazanavir comes as a capsule and as a powder to take by mouth. Atazanavir capsules are taken with food once a day and maybe given with a pharmacokinetic booster (medication given to increase the levels of another drug in the body) such as ritonavir or cobicistat. Atazanavir powder must be taken with food and ritonavir. Take atazanavir at around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take atazanavir exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

What Is an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API)?
The Pharmaceutical API is the part of any drug that produces the intended effects. Some drugs, such as combination therapies, have multiple active ingredients to treat different symptoms or act in different ways.

Production of Pharmaceutical APIs has traditionally been done by the pharmaceutical companies themselves in their home countries. But in recent years many corporations have opted to send manufacturing overseas to cut costs. This has caused significant changes to how these drugs are regulated, with more rigorous Federal Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and inspections put into place. ;

Components of Medications

All drugs are made up of two core components—the API, the central ingredient, and the excipient, the substances other than the drug that help deliver the medication to your system. Excipients are chemically inactive substances, such as lactose or mineral oil in the pill, reports Molkem, a chemical exporter.

Strength of APIs

Manufacturers use certain standards to determine how strong the API is in each drug. However, the standard can vary widely from one brand and process to another. Each brand might use different test methods, that can result in different potencies.

In all cases, manufacturers are required by the FDA to prove the potency of their products in real-life patients, as well as in laboratory conditions.

Unlike many other types of dyes, disperse dyes are far less water-soluble than other dyes such as acid dyes. As a result, disperse dyes are more commonly used in dye bath solutions. Disperse dyes achieve their best results when the dying process takes place at high temperatures. Specifically, solutions around 120°C to 130°C enable disperse dyes to perform at their optimal levels, enabling the dye to be more evenly distributed and more bold, while at lower temperatures, disperse dyes may result in uneven and less vibrant coloring results.

What are Disperse Dyes used for?

Due to their chemical properties and the behavior detailed above, disperse dyes are typically used for coloring synthetic fibers such as polyester, nylon, acrylic, and acetate rayon. Most forms of polyester are hydrophobic and lack ionic properties, which makes them nearly impossible to color with anything other than dispersed dyes.

In addition, at regular temperatures, even when submerged in a dye bath, polyester fibers do not swell, making it difficult for dye molecules to interact with the material. Even at the boiling temperature—of 100°C —the dyeing of polyester is problematic.

For this reason, when dyeing polyester, disperse dyes are used in dye bath solutions at temperatures around 20 to 30° higher than the boiling point of the dye bath solution. At these elevated temperatures required to color polyester, disperse dyes are known to maintain their molecular integrity. For the same reasons that disperse dyes are used to dye polyester, they are also used to dye other synthetic materials that are nonionic. The fact that disperse dyes possess no cationic or anionic tendencies is perhaps the most classifiable characteristic of disperse dyes.

Disperse dyes can also be used in resins and plastics for surface and general coloring uses.

Liquid dispersed dye of the azo or anthraquinone type
A liquid dispersed dye of the azo or anthraquinone type that includes a dispersing agent and dispersing assistant in order to keep the dye dissolved in liquid without sedimentation. The preferred dispersing agent is a sulfonated lignin salt and the preferred dispersing assistant is a surfactant such as polyethylene glycol epoxide ether (EO-1), polyethylene glycol phenolic-formaldehyde epoxide ether (EO-2), or polyethylene glycol amino methylene epoxide ether (EO-3).

This invention concerns liquid dispersed dyes of the azo and anthraquinone types, particularly non-soluble dyes mixed with a dispersing agent and a dispersing assistant in order to allow the non-soluble dye to dissolve or evenly disperse in the liquid, thus providing the dye with excellent thermal and storing stability. The liquid dispersed dye of the azo or anthraquinone type is capable of holding of a homogenous liquid phase to prevention of sedimentation.

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